Heydər Əliyev Mərkəzi. Dünya xalqlarının unikal musiqi alətlərinin sərgisi. 2019-cu il

Heydər Əliyev Mərkəzi. Dünya xalqlarının unikal musiqi alətlərinin sərgisi. 2019-cu il

Baku/07.08.22/Turan: Tar, kemancha, gaval, oud, saz - these Azerbaijani folk instruments are accepted as symbols of the musical history and culture of our country. Purely Azerbaijani national works - mughams, are performed with instrumental accompaniment of tar and kemancha. How are these instruments made today, what rules does a master need to know in order to get a unique sound?

Masters working in Azerbaijan, use in their work the secrets passed down from generation to generation. Each of them has  their own family  secrets, special mother-of-pearl inlay, polishing, carved ornaments, all this makes the instruments performed by them examples of high art. But there is no single standard by which craftsmen work. At the same time, unified approaches to the creation of violins, guitars, balalaikas and bagpipes are regulated. Why is  not there a single standard for the production of folk musical instruments in Azerbaijan?

The head of the research laboratory on "Improvement of national instruments" at the National Conservatory Mammadali Mammadov answered the questions of Turan.

“Once in the USSR, in the city of Shusha, there was a factory for the manufacture of oriental musical instruments. After the city was occupied, the factory was destroyed. Today, who wants to become the owner of a folk instrument, there are two ways - to contact the master manufacturers, or to purchase a used instrument that is for sale. There are high-quality tools on the market, but they differ in size, drying technology, and cutting. This affects the sound of the instrument.

The fact is that each master works according to his size and technology. There is no single system that masters  use. We need to work in several areas - this is the development of common standards and the training of masters. In our laboratory, a huge research work has been done on the development of measuring systems and tare, kemancha coefficients. But there is no national standard  in the country which should reflect not only the main dimensions, but also the technical requirements for all component parts. The world experience show  that there are national standards for the manufacture of stringed, wind,  and keyboard instruments, for example -  the national standard of the Russian Federation "GOST 24262-89- Piano, Specifications", or GOST 25992-83 - Reed instruments. Turkey has developed and implemented over a dozen standards, here are just a few of them - TS 4395 Odun- Müzik aletleri yapımında kullanılan akçaağaç ve ladin odunu, TS 12890 Yetkili servisler - Müzik aletleri - Kurallar, TS 13263 Türk çalgıları – Telli çalgılar - Bağlama

In 2018, the World Organization for Standardization (ISO) established a commission to help develop standards for musical instruments. We are very late in this matter.”

The vice-rector of the National Conservatory, professor of art, Lala Huseynova  told Turan about the need for a standard. “Standards are definitely needed. This is necessary for the training specialists in the manufacture of folk instruments, professional training of craftsmen, and their number decreases from year to year. The standard makes it possible to identify each batch of manufactured instruments, or a single instrument, which simplifies the observance of uniform canons of sound. If there is a standard, we will always be able to defend our national treasure, which are Azerbaijani folk instruments. In addition, if there is a standard on the basis of which we can train specialists, this will protect the interests of individual craftsmen. They will be able to obtain legally approved qualifications. This will solve the problems of employment and pensions for craftsmen in the future.”

Turan  also asked the head of the Light Industry Standardization Department of the Azerbaijan Standardization Institute, Sehrana Rzayeva to comment on the matter.

“Our organization is guided by the country's law on standardization, which says: the initial draft of the state standard can be prepared by state bodies (institutions), legal entities or individuals and submitted to the appropriate technical committee. The subjects developing the draft state standard must justify the need for its adoption. Of course, if we approach with such an initiative, our institute will provide all possible assistance.”

A standard for the manufacture of Azerbaijani national instruments is needed - this is clear to everyone. It is necessary to initiate its development, approval and implementation. Moreover, the program “Azerbaijan 2030: National Priorities for the Socio-Economic Development of the Country” outlines the main five priorities that must be implemented in the next decade. One of them is a big return to the territories liberated from occupation. It is impossible to imagine this return without the restoration of the production of tools in Shusha. The presence of the standard will allow the transfer of Azerbaijani craftsmanship and the art of playing the tar and kemancha, included in the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage List, from the category of oral folk art, where secrets are passed from father to son, into the category of professional academic excellence.-0-

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